If early colonies are restocked with new recruits from Earth, physiological changes will be modest. But subsequent colonists may sever the umbilical.
What makes this all possible is that the Falcon 9 rocket is made under one roof by one private company with one leader.
The colonists will be a young offshoot of the human tree, with the potential to evolve into a different species.
Living anywhere in our Solar System beyond Earth will require the same level of protection that an astronaut needs while walking in space.
Sending humans to Mars is a challenge that will spark innovation and the development of new technologies and capabilities.
In the case of Mars, a major resource that can be processed by synthetic biology is the atmosphere.
Planetary Society co-founder Louis Friedman argues the Red Planet will be humanity’s final destination, but our robots could reach the stars.
The planet Mars has been the focus of two ambitious projects: the search for life forms native to the planet and human colonization.
Wouldn't the Moon, so much nearer than Mars, be a better first step for humanity? Actually, no – it’s just too different.
It is a period of extraordinary discovery. It may be that future generations reap considerable economic benefits of space exploration.